After saponification, the lipid extract, called “unsaponifiables”, may contain other lipids besides sterols including hydrocarbons, carotenoids, tocopherols, free fatty acids, and other triterpenes. Many researchers proceed with derivatization and GC analysis without further sample cleanup and do not have problems with interference by these compounds. This is usually acceptable for the unsaponifiables fraction of a refined fat or oil sample. However, in some samples, such as crude oils, it may be necessary to further purify the sterol fraction from polar unsaponifiable lipids. Silica, C18, and aminopropyl SPE cartridges have all been used for this purpose. Phillips and co-workers  used aminopropyl SPE columns to separate sterols and stanols from serum unsaponifiable lipids, using chloroform: isopropanol for elution. Toivo and co-workers  demonstrated that equal yields were obtained using either C18 or silica SPE columns and eluting the sterol fraction from either column with 5% methanol in chloroform or 1% isopropanol in hexane, respectively.
- Studies have isolated gallic acid, quercetin, triacontane, cetyl alcohol, phytosterol, phytosterolin (phytosterol glucoside); jambulol, melissic, and a mixture of acids consisting chiefly of palmitic, oleic, and linoleic acid.
- Phytochemicals screenings have yielded alkaloids, essential oil, phenols, sterol, flavones and fatty acids.
- Yields flavonoids: euphorbianin, leucocyanidol, camphol, quercitrin and quercitrol.
- Study has suggested that some of the constituents of the plant are similar to those of the jambul (Syzygium cumini) seeds.
- Dried leaves yielded a moisture content of %, protein % ±, fat % ±, ash % ±, crude fiber % ±, and carbohydrate % ±. Vitamin content showed ascorbic acid mg/100g, thiamine , riboflavin , and niacin . ( 37 )
- Phytochemical screening of extracts yielded the presence of carbohydrates, lipids, proteins, flavonoids, alkaloids, saponins resins, steroids, acidic compounds, tannins, glycosides, phenols and terpenoids. (see study below) ( 45 )
- Study of aerial parts (leaves and stems) revealed saponin, sterol, terpene, alkaloids, polyphenols, tannins, flavonoids and especially mucllage. Physiochemical study yielded a moisture content of % ± %, total ash % ± %, sulfuric ash % ± %, hydrochloric acid insoluble ash of % ± %. Mineral analysis yielded magnesium, potassium, calcium, zinc, and traces of chrome. ( 55 )