Many attempts at using medications to impact appetite hormone regulation either haven't worked or produced unacceptable side effects. Pharmaceuticals that acted as ghrelin antagonists were developed as antiobesity drugs, but they failed to reduce food Similarly, giving someone extra PYY, which promotes satiety, can cause several gastrointestinal side effects, including Moreover, oral doses of PYY aren't absorbed well, and injections of PYY aren't as effective as what the body secretes Nonetheless, pharmaceutical companies are still working to develop successful appetite hormone-based treatments for
Enteroendocrine cells have traditionally been recognized by their affinity for certain metal stains, hence the older terms chromaffin cells (having an affinity for chromium) and argentaffin cells or argyrophil cells (having an affinity for silver). With sufficient resolution, these cells can sometimes be recognized in routine light microscopic preparations by their relatively pale cytoplasm with a broad base and a basal concentration of secretory vesicles (in contrast to the apical concentration of secretory vesicles for exocrine serous cells or mucous cells ). Immunocytochemical methods are preferred for demonstrating and properly identifying the various types of enteroendocrine cells.
the form of cell damage caused by the "excitotoxins," glutamic
and aspartic acids, the damage seems to require both stimulation, and
difficulty in maintaining adequate energy production. This combination
leads to both calcium uptake and lipid peroxidation. When cells
are de-energized, they tend to activate iron by chemical reduction,
producing lipid peroxidation. This could explain the presence
of chemically active iron, but an actual increase in the iron concentration
suggests that there has been prolonged injury (oxidative stress) to
the cell, with increased production of the heme group, which binds iron.