Oral corticosteroids pharmacology

Oral and injectable systemic corticosterois are steroid hormones prescribed to decrease inflammation in diseases and conditions such as arthritis (rheumatoid arthritis, for example), ulcerative colitis, Crohn's disease, asthma, bronchitis, some skin rashes, and allergic or inflammatory conditions that involve the nose and eyes. Examples of systemic corticosteroids include hydrocortisone (Cortef), cortisone, prednisone (Prednisone Intensol), prednisolone (Orapred, Prelone), and methylprednisolone (Medrol, Depo-Medrol, Solu-Medrol). Some of the side effects of systemic corticosteroids are swelling of the legs, hypertension, headache, easy bruising, facial hair growth, diabetes, cataracts, and puffiness of the face.

a) A wide range of psychiatric reactions including affective disorders (such as irritable, euphoric, depressed and labile mood and suicidal thoughts), psychotic reactions (including mania, delusions, hallucinations and aggravation of schizophrenia), behavioural disturbances, irritability, anxiety, sleep disturbances, and cognitive dysfunction including confusion and amnesia have been reported. Reactions are common and may occur in both adults and children. In adults, the frequency of severe reactions has been estimated to be 5-6%. Psychological effects have been reported on withdrawal of corticosteroids; the frequency is unknown.

Drugs can inhibit PCSK9, leading to lowered circulating LDL particle concentrations. Since LDL particle concentrations are a driver of cardiovascular disease like heart attacks , it is plausible that these drugs may also reduce the risk of such diseases. Clinical studies, including phase III clinical trials , are now underway to describe the effect of PCSK9 inhibition on cardiovascular disease, and the safety and efficacy profile of the drugs. [63] [64] [65] [66] [67] Among those inhibitors under development in December 2013 were the antibodies alirocumab , evolocumab , 1D05-IgG2 ( Merck ), RG-7652 and LY3015014, as well as the RNAi therapeutic inclisiran . [68] PCSK9 inhibitors are promising therapeutics for the treatment of people who exhibit statin intolerance, or as a way to bypass frequent dosage of statins for higher LDL concentration reduction. [69] [70]

Oral corticosteroids pharmacology

oral corticosteroids pharmacology


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