Effect of levamisole in steroid dependent nephrotic syndrome

Nematodirus worms are not the most harmful among the gastrointestinal roundworms that affect livestock. However, Nematodirus battus can be particularly pathogenic for lambs. Larvae are the most damaging stage. They feed on the tissue of the gut's wall, which can be seriously damaged in case of massive infections. This causes strong diarrhea (dark, green or yellow) and dehydration. If left untreated many lambs may die (10% or more), even before having shed eggs, because the larvae had no time to complete development to adult worms.

Medications that are used to kill roundworms are called ascaricides . Those recommended by the World Health Organization for ascariasis are: albendazole , mebendazole , levamisole and pyrantel pamoate . [2] Other effective agents include tribendimidine and nitazoxanide . [2] Pyrantel pamoate may induce intestinal obstruction in a heavy worm load. Albendazole is contraindicated during pregnancy and children under two years of age. Thiabendazole may cause migration of the worm into the esophagus , so it is usually combined with piperazine.

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An anthelmintic is a compound which destroys or removes helminths from the gastro-intestinal tract and other tissues and organs they may occupy in their hosts. Currently a good selection of safe anthelmintics is available, some with broad spectrum activity and others with activity against specific helminth infections. Many modern anthelmintics are effective against both adults and larval stages and an increasing number are efficacious against arrested or dormant larvae. Due to their cost and their tendency to delay or interfere with natural host immunity mechanisms, anthelmintics may not be the most desirable method of managing helminth problems. However, in many circumstances the sensible use of anthelmintic drugs is likely to be the only available method of controlling helminth parasites. They should not be used indiscriminately. Characteristics and selection of anthelmintics The ideal anthelmintic has the following properties: (a) A broad spectrum activity against adult and larval helminth parasites. A number of factors influence the efficacy of an anthelmintic drug. Animals often harbour several different species of helminths, which may not have the same sensitivity to a given anthelmintic. In addition, there is usually a difference in sensitivity between adults and larval stages, with immature stages being less sensitive than the adult parasites. Very few if any of the anthelmintics are completely effective at the recommended doses under field conditions. Some anthelmintics may be very effective in sheep but not in cattle, or vice versa. (b) A rapid metabolism in the body and short-lived presence at low levels in the milk and/or tissues. Animals should not be slaughtered for human consumption and milk not distributed to consumers until the drug residues have reached acceptably low levels. The withdrawal period of the drug should be considered before its use. (c) A low toxicity in the target species. The ratio of the therapeutic dose to the maximum tolerated dose should be as large as possible. It is desirable that an anthelmintic has a safety margin of at least six-fold. (d) No unpleasant side-effects to the animal or to the operator. Drugs may cause vomiting, or pain at the injection site. Some drugs irritate the skin of humans. (e) Suitable for practical and economical integration into various management systems. The selected drug(s) should be competitively priced and ready to use in a simple way. They should be stable and not decompose on exposure to normal ranges of temperature, light and humidity, and have a long shelf life. Administration of anthelmintics Dosing by mouth
Dosing by injection
Dosing by external application

Effect of levamisole in steroid dependent nephrotic syndrome

effect of levamisole in steroid dependent nephrotic syndrome

An anthelmintic is a compound which destroys or removes helminths from the gastro-intestinal tract and other tissues and organs they may occupy in their hosts. Currently a good selection of safe anthelmintics is available, some with broad spectrum activity and others with activity against specific helminth infections. Many modern anthelmintics are effective against both adults and larval stages and an increasing number are efficacious against arrested or dormant larvae. Due to their cost and their tendency to delay or interfere with natural host immunity mechanisms, anthelmintics may not be the most desirable method of managing helminth problems. However, in many circumstances the sensible use of anthelmintic drugs is likely to be the only available method of controlling helminth parasites. They should not be used indiscriminately. Characteristics and selection of anthelmintics The ideal anthelmintic has the following properties: (a) A broad spectrum activity against adult and larval helminth parasites. A number of factors influence the efficacy of an anthelmintic drug. Animals often harbour several different species of helminths, which may not have the same sensitivity to a given anthelmintic. In addition, there is usually a difference in sensitivity between adults and larval stages, with immature stages being less sensitive than the adult parasites. Very few if any of the anthelmintics are completely effective at the recommended doses under field conditions. Some anthelmintics may be very effective in sheep but not in cattle, or vice versa. (b) A rapid metabolism in the body and short-lived presence at low levels in the milk and/or tissues. Animals should not be slaughtered for human consumption and milk not distributed to consumers until the drug residues have reached acceptably low levels. The withdrawal period of the drug should be considered before its use. (c) A low toxicity in the target species. The ratio of the therapeutic dose to the maximum tolerated dose should be as large as possible. It is desirable that an anthelmintic has a safety margin of at least six-fold. (d) No unpleasant side-effects to the animal or to the operator. Drugs may cause vomiting, or pain at the injection site. Some drugs irritate the skin of humans. (e) Suitable for practical and economical integration into various management systems. The selected drug(s) should be competitively priced and ready to use in a simple way. They should be stable and not decompose on exposure to normal ranges of temperature, light and humidity, and have a long shelf life. Administration of anthelmintics Dosing by mouth
Dosing by injection
Dosing by external application

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