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Aggregations are common among diapausing tropical insects, especially in the orders Coleoptera , Lepidoptera , and Hemiptera .  Aggregations may be used as protection against predation , since aggregating species are frequently toxic and predators quickly learn to avoid them. They can also serve to reduce water loss, as seen in the fungus beetle , Stenotarsus rotundus , which forms aggregations of up to 70,000 individuals, which may be eight beetles deep. Relative humidity is increased within the aggregations and beetles experience less water loss, probably due to decreased surface area to volume ratios reducing evaporative water loss.