In April 2014, the BMJ reported that four elite women athletes with 5-ARD were subjected to sterilization and "partial clitoridectomies" in order to compete in sport. The authors noted that "partial clitoridectomy" was "not medically indicated, does not relate to real or perceived athletic “advantage,"" relating to elevated androgen levels. The athletes were all from developing countries where lifetime access to hormone replacement may prove elusive.  Intersex advocates regard this intervention as "a clearly coercive process". 
RESULTS : • Eight studies met inclusion criteria but only the Prostate Cancer Prevention Trial and the Reduction by Dutasteride of Prostate Cancer Events were designed to assess the impact of 5-α-RIs on prostate cancer period-prevalence. The mean age of enrolees was 64 years, 92% were White, and mean PSA level was ng/mL. For-cause prostate cancers comprised 54% of all cancers detected in placebo-controlled studies. • Compared with placebo, 5-α-RI resulted in a 25% relative risk (RR) reduction in prostate cancers detected for-cause [RR , 95% confidence interval (CI) -; % absolute risk reduction (% vs %)]. One BPH trial reported that the risk of prostate cancers detected for-cause was significantly reduced with dutasteride and combined dutasteride plus tamsulosin compared with tamsulosin monotherapy. • Six trials vs placebo assessed prostate cancers detected overall. There was a 26% RR reduction favouring 5-α-RI [RR , 95% CI -; % absolute risk reduction (% vs %)]. There were reductions across categories of age, race and family history of prostate cancer. • One placebo-controlled trial of men that investigators considered at greater risk for prostate cancer (based on age, elevated PSA level and having a previous suspicion of prostate cancer leading to a prostate biopsy) reported that dutasteride did not reduce prostate cancers detected for-cause based on needle-biopsy but did reduce risk of overall incident prostate cancer detected by biopsy by 23%[RR , 95% CI -; absolute reduction % vs %]. There were reductions across age, family history of prostate cancer, PSA level, and prostate volume subgroups. • Incidences of erectile dysfunction, ejaculate volume, decreased libido, and gynaecomastia were greater with 5-α-RI vs placebo.